look at Admirals list above, great idea to do the exploring in a structural way!
As far as your taste is concerned, what really matters is what you like yourself, not what others say. They can only recommend from their own experiences.
Therefore, I have some comments on the list above. This does not mean that I think that Admiral gives you bad advice or has a bad taste, on the contrary!! It only proves that we can have different tastes and I simply have other preferences:
Speyside: agree on Cragganmore (very complex, delicate), would also recommend Balvenie 10 or 12 (slightly honeyish), Longmorn 15 (sherryish, flowery), Glanfarclas 12 (also sherryish, more powerful body).
Islay: agree on that (careful with Laphroaig, that's the most extreme), would like to add Ardbeg 10 (is explosive!).
Highlands: agree with Glenmorangie 10 (stay away from the finishes, but that's personal, others love them), would like to add Clynelish 14.
Lowlands: don't agree on Glenkinchie, prefer Rosebank or Bladnoch.
Islands: perfectly my taste Admiral!
Campbeltown: well, Springbank has a shortage and can not supply market demands, so is overpriced. In the meantime, buy the others!
For the descriptions: difficult to express myself, I'm also in the novice phase. I recommend you read some books with tasting notes about whisky, so you see the opinion of others. (But bear in mind that they are descriptions or opinions, and you may not experience or think the same.)
Best recommended book for exploring all the tastes: Dr. David Wishart, Whisky Classified: Choosing Single Malts by Flavour.
Another advice: explore with miniatures! I never did that myself, but I ended up with lots of bottles. Some I prefer less, so they take some time (years) to finish and I won't buy these again. With limited budgets, try to avoid that and spend your money wisely!
Single malts go well with both music and books, so,